Doença celíaca, alergia ao trigo, intolerância ao glúten e sensibilidade ao glúten (não celíaca) são a mesma coisa?

O glúten – proteína presente no trigo, na cevada, no centeio, entre outros – não é bem aceito no organismo de algumas pessoas, mas têm vários níveis de “rejeição” pelo corpo. Dessa forma, esses termos não correspondem a mesma condição. Citaremos alguns aspectos básicos que diferenciam essas nomenclaturas, porém é sempre bom lembrar que para você ter certeza da sua condição, é necessário entrar em contanto com um médico especializado nessa área e realizar alguns testes.

Doença Celíaca:

Ela é autoimune – o próprio sistema imunológico do corpo ataca células saudáveis. As paredes do intestino ficam inflamadas quando ingerido o glúten. Os principais sintomas são: diarreia, inchaço, gases, anemia e diminuição da absorção de nutrientes, mas algumas pessoas não apresentam sintomas. Como não há tratamento específico, a dieta restrita ao glúten é necessária e se a pessoa não segui-la, ela pode desenvolver um câncer no intestino ou no linfoma.

Alergia ao trigo:

Ela também é um tipo de manifestação imunológico, mas, diferente da doença celíaca, ela tem relação com outros tipos de anticorpos. Os sintomas também são diferentes da DC. O mais comum é que a alergia avise que está iniciando com sintomas leves, como coceira, quando o alimento com glúten (trigo principalmente) ainda está na boca ou minutos depois do consumo. A reação alérgica mais grave é chamada Anafilaxia e nela vários sintomas ocorrem ao mesmo tempo, além dos sintomas mais comuns de pele, também pode ocorrer tosse, chiado, falta de ar, dor abdominal, náusea, vômito, diarreia, desmaio e pode até levar a morte. Geralmente, quando o indivíduo é tratado a tempo, ele recebe um plano de ação do médico, que contém todas as diretrizes caso o contato com o alimento volte a acontecer. Além disso, é indicado que o paciente ande com uma nécessaire contendo um antialérgico, um broncodilatador e a caneta de adrenalina. Assim como a doença celíaca, não há tratamento de prevenção, a não ser evitar o contato com o alimento.

Intolerância ao glúten:

Os dois primeiros quadros (doença celíaca e alergia) são secundários ao glúten, já na intolerância o problema não é necessariamente o glúten, e sim o trigo. Por esse motivo, não se sabe exatamente se o vilão da história é a proteína presente no trigo (glúten) ou até mesmo o carboidrato encontrado nesse alimento. Os sintomas são parecidos com a doença celíaca: diarreia, gases, desconforto abdominal, dor de cabeça, sonolência. Mas não há relação com anticorpo algum. É por esse motivo que o diagnóstico da sensibilidade é o mais difícil, feito com tentativa e erro. Seja qual for o motivo, os especialistas frisam que intolerância não causa reações graves como a alergia ou a doença celíaca.

Sensibilidade ao Glúten não Celíaca:

São alterações gastrointestinais causadas pelo glúten, mas sem a relação com alguma resposta imunológica, sem distúrbios nutricionais associados, e sem alterações de anticorpos ligados a ingestão desta proteína. Segundo Fernando Valério, médico gastroenterologista, proctologista e nutrólogo, o diagnóstico da sensibilidade ao glúten é até o momento clínico, ou seja, através da suspeita clínica e exclusão de outros diagnósticos, como a Síndrome do Intestino Irritável, alergias e intolerâncias alimentares, e processos inflamatórios do intestino (como as colites). “A sensibilidade ao glúten está mais associada ao desconforto e sintomas digestivos que trazem prejuízo à qualidade de vida, do que propriamente alterações orgânicas do intestino ou distúrbios nutricionais”, explica Fernando Valério. “O tratamento para a sensibilidade ao glúten consiste na retirada da dieta dos alimentos que contenham glúten”, explica. Nos pacientes em que o diagnóstico é confirmado esta conduta traz a melhora imediata dos sintomas.

Fontes: Uol – Alimentação; Viva Bem; Site da Schar

30/06/2020

*Estamos compartilhando nossas experiências mas não somos médicas ou nutricionistas. Consulte um especialista para uma orientação profissional.

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